algorithm,recursion,binary-tree , How to find lowest common ancestor in binary tree using bottom up recursion [closed]


How to find lowest common ancestor in binary tree using bottom up recursion [closed]

Question:

Tag: algorithm,recursion,binary-tree

I am having a hard time understanding how to find lowest common ancestor in binary tree using bottom up recursion.

HERE is the solution which looks very neat. I tried drying running it on a small tree but no luck.

Can someone please help with this.


Answer:

The algorithm you linked to is reproduced below, in case the link changes:

public static Tree findLowestCommonAncestor(Tree root, Tree p, Tree q)
{
    if (root == null)
        return null;

    if (root == p || root == q)
        return root;

    Tree left = findLowestCommonAncestor(root.left, p, q);
    Tree right = findLowestCommonAncestor(root.right, p, q);

    if (left != null && right != null)
        return root;

    if (left != null)
        return left;
    else
        return right;
}

It works like this. The key observation is that if we consider a node n that is an ancestor of p and q, and ask whether it's the lowest common ancestor, there are basically three possibilities:

  1. p and q are both descendants of the left child of n, but not the right child;
  2. p and q are both descendants of the right child of n, but not the left child;
  3. p and q are both descendants of both children of n.

This is the idea behind the whole algorithm. We start at the root, and work our way down. We recursively find the LCA of p and q from the left child l of the current node, and the right child r of the current node.

If the left-hand search returns something, but the right-hand search doesn't, then that means the left-hand search found the right value (because the answer is lower down than the current node, and either l itself or a descendant of l). Similarly if the right-hand search returns something, but the left-hand search doesn't.

If the left-hand and right-hand searches both return something, then p and q are both descendants of n. That means that we can return n as the LCA: it can't be anything lower, because otherwise we'd have found it earlier in the recursive search; and it is a common ancestor, so it must therefore be the lowest one.

(The language isn't particularly helpful, by the way: I'd have said that the ancestor you want is the highest one in the tree, but in what you're looking at, lowest seems to mean nearest to the root.)


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