FAQ Database Discussion Community


Why cant application find this libSDL2_image-2.0.so.0 library? - Ubuntu 14.04

c++,linux,install,shared-libraries,ubuntu-14.04
I have an application which depends on this library libSDL2_image-2.0.so.0 So I compiled from source - which I obtained from SDL image website The compilation and install ran with no errors make install put the library here: /usr/local/lib/libSDL2_image-2.0.so.0 when I try to launch main application terminal errors out with: error...

Error while loading shared libraries: libsfml-graphics.so.2.2.0

c++,linux,shared-libraries,sfml
Full Error: error while loading shared libraries: libsfml-graphics.so.2.2.0: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory This is probably the quintillionth time I've run into this error with SFML. This error oddly only occurs when running the executable, rather than during compilation. I don't know what is causing...

ANDROID: How to properly link against static libraries while creating shared libraries with dependencies on the static ones

android,c++,android-ndk,shared-libraries,protocol-buffers
I have to use some c++ code in my android application. This code was used successfully in an iOS project. The code depends on 2 external libraries: zero-mq and protocol buffers. I compiled the zmq library as an static library like explained here. I added the static (.a) library and...

Boost library missing at runtime (Can compile. Can't run)

c++,boost,shared-libraries
This is a pretty entry level question but I just can't seem to find any relevant answers. I can compile this no problem using the following command: g++ client.cpp -o client -lboost_system -lpthread When I try to run the program I get the following error: ./client ./client: error while loading...

CMAKE, SDL2 and OPENGL: Program binary is too big

c++,cmake,shared-libraries,static-libraries,sdl-2
I use CMAKE to link a program to SDL2, OpenGL and I compile tinyxml2 as a shared library. The resulting program binary is 1.4 mb but there's barely 1k lines of code in the program. I suspect some library is statically linked. I'd prefer they are linked as shared libraries....

How to create an extension to already wrapped library via SWIG?

c++,c,plugins,shared-libraries,swig
I have a library. It is wraped via SWIG. I want to create a plugin to extend it. Plugin requires a class from already wrapped library to run having something like void init( oldT old);. Library is used from Java and c#. Now this plugin also will be used from...

Using an ad-hoc libc with a tool which is an argument of another tool

linux,shared-libraries
I need to use a particular libc to run a tool (cp). The problem is that this tool has to be used as argument of another tool (for example timeout) and I don't want to use the modified libc with this one. I tried to do: timeout 10 LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/path/to/mod/libc/ cp...

Load a shared library linked to Rust library in R

r,shared-libraries,rust
Following up on this question here, I am having issues using dyn.load to load a shared library that is linked to a Rust dylib. I suspect it has something to do with where R is looking for the Rust dylib, but I have not found a way to specify another...

How can LD_LIBRARY_PATH be changed within CMake?

cmake,shared-libraries,dynamic-linking
I have a local shared library which is not in $LD_LIBRARY_PATH. I want to run my executable, but since it cannot find the shared library in the system folders, it outputs "error while loading shared libraries". A possible fix for this is to export a new LD_LIBRARY_PATH containing the local...

How to use shared object libraries for enabling/disabling features?

c,linux,shared-libraries,dynamic-linking
Language: C Operating System: Red Hat EL Starting with a "for instance": Assume I have two libraries: libJUMP.so and libSIT.so. JUMP contains the function jump() and similarly SIT contains the function sit() I have an application that I want to provide to different people; they can either get the...

Assembly coding strdup. Malloc calling in shared library

assembly,shared-libraries,nasm,x86-64
I have a problem, I can't compile my strdup while calling malloc. When I don't call malloc, it compiles my shared library perfectly, so if someone could help me that would be great ! here is my code: BITS 64 DEFAULT REL global my_strdup:function extern malloc my_strdup: [...] call malloc...

issues in creating c linux library

java,c,openssl,jni,shared-libraries
Hi I am creating an openssl wrapper c library to be use with JNI. My c source file name is rsa.c and JNI header file name is OpensslRSA.h which is contain in both JAVA_HOME/include and JAVA_HOME/include/linux directories. I am using below syntax to create this library . gcc -shared -fpic...

modifying the linkage path of an executable

linux,unix,shared-libraries,ldd
The ldd utility shows which shared object files a binary executable depends on, and also shows the path of that binary executable on the file system. Is it possible to modify this path, on an existing executable? For example, suppose I have a binary "foo.so", and I say: libssl.so.0.9.8 =>...

Using my own library : implicit declaration of function

c,eclipse,makefile,shared-libraries,multi-project
Firstly, I'd like to thanks you in advance for the time you'll take to help me out. If I may suggest you, you can try reproduce my problem. Don't try to read the makefiles if you don't feel it'll help you to understand my problem. Also, I'd like to point...

Error on dlclose: “shared objects still referenced”

linux,shared-libraries,posix,qnx
I have the following error on a dlclose()'d .so: "Shared objects still referenced". I didn't find too much information about it. Did you have such a problem before? What kind of programming errors (or compiling options?) can cause this? The only thing I tried is to find if MY module...

Invalid mex-file, libarmadillo, cannot open shared object file

matlab,shared-libraries,mex,armadillo
I know there are a lot of posts about the topic, this might be a duplicate, but I don't think so. My config is: Matlab R2014b, clang 3.4, Ubuntu 14.04, armadillo-4.600.4. I have a local install (not system-wise, so including/linking manually) of Armadillo that works fine when outside of Matlab....

C lib file dependency conflicts

c++,c,dll,shared-libraries
So I'm confused about how lib files work, I would prefer to use all lib files and no dlls but am concerned about potential conflicts of a specific type. Say you have a program that depends on lib files a1 and a2, and lib file a1 depends on lib file...

Static member of template base class doesn't get exported to shared library

c++,shared-libraries,ubuntu-14.04,nm,template-classes
I have a class 'ModelManager' which is derived from a template class 'TModelManager'. Their declaration is as follows: template<class TModel,class TModelMesh,class TModelSubMesh> class TModelManager { protected: static std::map<std::string,ModelHandle> m_models; static std::vector<std::map<std::string,ModelHandle>::iterator> m_marked; [...] }; class DLLNETWORK ModelManager : public TModelManager<Model,ModelMesh,ModelSubMesh> { [...] }; There are two shared libraries, "shared" and...

Can't properly link libraries when compiling with Waf

c++,build,linker,shared-libraries,waf
I'm trying to compile a program that depends on Caffe using Waf (not my program, just trying to build it). During linking, I was getting the error /usr/bin/ld: cannot find -lcaffe So I added the path to libcaffe.so to obj.libpath in wscript and it compiled. Yet when I run the...

Where does C function execution stop

python,c,shared-libraries,execution
In the project folder I have: libtest.so test.h I have imported ctypes in my python code (not sure if it was necessary) and I loaded .so file like following: lib = cdll.LoadLibrary('./libtest.so') In "test.h" C header file I have: long TEST_API test( ___OUT_ char text[41], ___OUT_ char* pcReceiptSignature, ); I...

Unable to access NDK module in emulator

android,android-ndk,jni,shared-libraries
I'm using Android studio 1.0.2 to generate the .so library. When I load the app on the emulator, there is an error loading the module. The error message is: dlopen failed: library "HelloJNI" not found Here is my MainActivity.java: public native String HelloJNI(); static { System.load("HelloJNI"); } @Override protected void...

Resolve undefined symbol for shared libraries

c,shared-libraries
In a C-program, I want to add specific modules as shared-libraries using dlopen. Using dlopen with RTLD_LAZY (using RTLD_NOW directly fails probably due to the reason below) and dlsym I can create the handle to the actual function that I want to call. After calling the function, I get the...

why can't MATLAB import this python library?

python,matlab,linker,shared-libraries,dyld
I'd like to use http://www.losonczylab.org/sima/1.2/ from within MATLAB. I can run it fine from python. I can import example dependencies in MATLAB. $ /opt/local/bin/python Python 2.7.9 (default, Dec 13 2014, 15:13:49) [GCC 4.2.1 Compatible Apple LLVM 6.0 (clang-600.0.56)] on darwin Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>>...

gcc link the shared library in specified path but not in the standard path

c,linux,gcc,linker,shared-libraries
I came across a strange issue when using gcc to link the shared library in specified path but not in the standard path. When I downloaded GNU readline library version 6.3 and compiled it successfully in path $HOME/Downloads. GNU readline library needs to link libtinfo, so I installed it by...

What happens when ld link different versions of the same library

c++,shared-libraries,ld
Let's say I have libA.so with version 1.1 and 1.2, both have the same symbols defined. what happens if myApp need a symbol from libA but mistakenly linked both versions: ld -o myApp -Lpath -lA_1_1 -lA_1_2 Am I right it will use symbols from the first one as long as...

How to use Cocoapods in an embedded framework and in app

ios,shared-libraries,cocoapods
I want to integrate an action extension into my app. I generated an embedded framework with the shared code between app and extension. Now I need to access a pod in the embedded framework. How do I link the pods into the framework?...

ELF executables: required version information for imported symbols

linux,linker,shared-libraries,elf,dynamic-linking
I was hoping that every dynamically linked ELF binary has a .gnu.version_r section (or another section tagged DT_VERNEED), and that this section contains a required version for every symbol imported from a dynamically linked shared object. Yet, there seem to be cases possible in which the compiler/linker adds an DT_NEEDED...

Python C interface, different modules share static variables?

python,c++,c,static,shared-libraries
I am building python bindings for my custom C++ lib, in Linux, using gcc 4.8.2 and Python 2.7. I have the following folder structure within my code module/ __init__.py submodule1.so # first part of lib submodule2.so # second part of lib submodule3.py # additional python tools In __init__.py import submodule1,...

C++11 compatibility with existing libraries/frameworks

c++,c++11,shared-libraries
I am wondering something for which I have not found a convincing answer yet. Situation: A system with some libraries (e.g. gtkmm) compiled without c++11 enabled. An application compiled with C++11 enabled. Both are compiled and linked with the same GCC version/environment. The application has some function calls to the...

How to install and use NTL in cygwin

c++,cygwin,shared-libraries,ntl
The libraries that I've used so far require installation. So they generate xx.a file that can be included in the code in cygwin. However, NTL library for windows only requires to unzip the file. So I need to know how to use it in cygwin command line. I have done...

running 64-bit application with 32-bit shared object

64bit,shared-libraries,32bit-64bit
I have 64-bit Linux OS, and would like to ask if I can use the following combinations: 64-bit application (java) using 32-bit shared object (C++) on 64 bit OS 32-bit application (java) using 32-bit shared object (C++) on 64 bit OS 64-bit application (java) using 64-bit shared object (C++) on...

Calling C++ 64bit shared library from Python

python,c++,python-2.7,64bit,shared-libraries
I would like to use a function from a given C++ 64 bit shared library (a .so file under linux) from python 2.7.8 . The header of the C++ shared library has this function: EXPORT_CODE double CONVENTION PropsSI(const char *Output, const char *Name1, double Prop1, const char *Name2, double Prop2,...

shared library apparently not containing any routines

r,shared-libraries,rcpp
I'm trying to make an R interface to the C++ library Faddeeva (various types of complex error functions); unfortunately I have very little experience in calling external code in R and it's proving quite a challenge. My naive attempt, R CMD SHLIB Faddeeva.cc produced a shared library Faddeeva.so, which I...

Is there a way to prevent dlsym (module, “functionName”) every function?

c,shared-libraries,pkcs#11,dlsym
I have a shared library (precise a PKCS#11 module) and I want to write an application that can load a library and use it. Currently I use dlsym like this: My_C_GetSlotList = (CK_C_GetSlotList) dlsym (module, "C_GetSlotList"); if (!My_C_GetSlotList) printf("Couldn't find function 'C_GetSlotList' in library: %s: %s\n", filename, dlerror ()); But...

Linux C++ Dynamic Libs and static initialization order

c++,linux,dynamic,initialization,shared-libraries
Forgive me on the long post. Its a complicate problem I wanted a complete description. On Linux Fedora 21 (g++ 4.9.2) and like. I'm working on a C++ database wrapper library using a base class of "database" and inherited classes of Oracle and Sybase. Beyond that, I wanted some of...

How to call Fortran routine with unit number argument from C

c,io,fortran,shared-libraries,abi
If I have a Fortran subroutine which takes a Fortran IO Unit as one of its parameters (for printing debug information to), and this function is compiled into a shared library, how do I correctly call this function from C? ! An example subroutine that I want to call from...

understanding of addresses in dynamically loaded library

c,dll,shared-libraries,dynamic-linking,memory-layout
I have a foo2 function defined in foo.so, when I dynamic loaded into the main program, I try to understand the base address and function foo's address. The code is the following: void (* foo2)(void) = (void (*)(void))dlsym(loaded_so_handle, "foo2"); Dl_info info; dladdr(&foo2, &info); void * baseaddr = info.dli_fbase; printf("base:%p, foo:%p,...

Detecting unresolved symbols in an ELF executable

c,linux,shared-libraries,ld,elf
Let's say I have two files: // shared.c (will be compiled to 'shared.so') #include <stdio.h> int f() { printf("hello\n"); } and // exe.c (will be compiled to 'exe') #include <stdio.h> int f(); int main() { int i; scanf("%d", &i); if (i == 5) f(); } I compile both files as...

Performance c++: Dynamic loading library and loops

c++,performance,shared-libraries
I want to make fast iterations of a dynamically loaded library symbol. To see how much performance I can get comparing to hard-coding the function, I did some benchmarks for a simple addition operation. I use this function to do the operation long int func(long int x) { return x+1;...

Mixing C/C++ code yields “undefined symbol” with shared library

c++,c,qt,shared-libraries,dlopen
This problem has perplexed me for a week now so I thought it might finally be time to ask you guys for help. Here is the story in a nutshell: We are developing an embedded server in-house using Qt/C++. It is a very simple server that processes client requests and...

put libraries inside exe folder in Linux

c++,linux,shared-libraries,portability
I'm trying to make a portable Linux application where all required libraries are included inside the folder. But if I just put them in the folder next to the executables, it saiys it cant find the libraries. So how can I ship an application that contains all required libaries inside...

Dynamic library “forwarding”

c,linker,shared-libraries
[Edit: In short, the question is: when I link against a dynamic library that is linked against another dynamic library, do I have to explicitly link against that as well?] I saw something like this in a piece of software. It doesn't work and now I am wondering whether it...

Shared library from archive (.a) file in C

c,linux,makefile,make,shared-libraries
I was given a task to create archive file .a from objects file and create a shared library file from archive .a file. I have tried experiment having following file: foo.h #ifndef _foo_h__ #define _foo_h__ extern void foo(void); extern void bar(void); #endif //_foo_h__ foo.c #include<stdio.h> void foo(void) { puts("Hello, I'm...

svn: error while loading shared libraries: libserf-1.so.1: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

svn,shared-libraries
I compiled svn 1.8.5 with serf enabled. ./configure --prefix=/home/user/Downloads/svn --with-editor=/home/user/Downloads/vim74-install/bin/vim --with-openssl --with-serf=$HOME/Downloads/serf_install && make && make install Then svn complained: svn: error while loading shared libraries: libserf-1.so.1: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory The libserf-1.so.1 (and the file it points to) is indeed there $ll $HOME/Downloads/serf_install/lib/libserf-1.so.1...

Multiple Android Supprt files in Project and libraries

java,android,eclipse,shared-libraries
I'll try to explain as much as possible as this is more of a structural problem than code problem, ok, so i have project in which i am using android-support-library-v4, now in the same project i have now added three new libraries, these libraries also include android-support-library-v4, as they are...

Using .so files in Android Studio

android,android-studio,android-ndk,shared-libraries
I am new to Android. I have a basic hello-world native code function like this: #include <string.h> #include <jni.h> #include <cassert> #include <string> #include <iostream> #include <fromhere.h> using namespace std; /* This is a trivial JNI example. * The string returned can be used by java code*/ extern "C"{ JNIEXPORT...

Using a third party library (sbpl)

c++,linux,shared-libraries,third-party
I've built and installed a library called sbpl on linux\ubuntu. After installing i have the following files: usr/local/include/sbpl (have a bunch of files here including a headers.h file) usr/local/lib has a libsbpl.so file Now I'm having some trouble compiling a simple program: yus.cpp #include <iostream> #include <sbpl/headers.h> int main() {...

How to hard code a dynamic library path on Linux

c,linux,gcc,shared-libraries,dynamic-linking
I would like to hard code the path to a library in my executable, in Linux. On OS X this is achieved by providing the full path after the -o argument when building the library. For example, I build a library like this on OS X: cc foo.c --shared -o...

using c++ code from python in a shared-lib to control an LCD

python,c++,shared-libraries,ctypes,raspberry-pi2
My project is to control an LCD with ST7565 controler on my Raspberry B2 I'm trying to use this c++ code, that controls the lcd: https://github.com/stephanel/ST7565-RPi Unfortunately I'm not familiar with programming in C, because of this I want to call the c++ functions from python with ctypes. I wrote...

Is it possible to use a shared object constructor for setting the library search path?

c,shared-libraries,posix
I am storing shared objects in a hierarchical folder structure. Shared libraries can depend on one another. At runtime, shared library X may need to load shared library Y. I am unsure what mechanism I can use to have library X locate Y. I'd rather not use -rpath because it...

different function address in PIC shared library

c,shared-libraries,dynamic-linking,fpic
I have a file ptr.c as [email protected]:~/code/link_load$ cat ptr.c int test() { printf("in test1 %p\n",&test); return 0; } I created a shared lib as [email protected]:~/code/link_load$ gcc -fPIC -c ptr.c [email protected]:~/code/link_load$ gcc -shared -o libptr.so ptr.o Then I call test from two programs p1.c and p2.c, both call test and p1.c...

How to compile libusb as shared library?

gcc,shared-libraries,ld,autotools,libusb-1.0
I am trying to build libusb as shared library as follows. Following are two steps. 1. Configure 2. Make. I pass "--enable-shared" to configure script assuming it will generate the shared .so file Configure ./configure CC=/mnt/store/gcc-linaro-arm-linux-gnueabihf-4.9-2014.09_linux/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc --host=arm-linux --enable-udev=no --enable-shared checking for a BSD-compatible install... /usr/bin/install -c checking whether build environment...

Android.mk: accessing a function in a shared library from another shared library

android,eclipse,shared-libraries,android.mk
I have a first shared library: LOCAL_PATH := $(call my-dir) include $(CLEAR_VARS) LOCAL_MODULE := one LOCAL_SRC_FILES := one.cpp include $(BUILD_SHARED_LIBRARY) I want to call a function in this first shared library from a second shared library: LOCAL_PATH := $(call my-dir) include $(CLEAR_VARS) LOCAL_MODULE := two LOCAL_SRC_FILES := two.c LOCAL_SHARED_LIBRARIES :=...

How to compile PHP extension on OS X using SWIG

php,c,osx,shared-libraries,swig
I have a program written on C and need to use it in the PHP project. I succeed to use SWIG and compiled SO php extension on Ubuntu. Afterwards I've tried to use same SO file on OS X - but php throws following error: PHP Error[2]: dl(): Unable to...

Linux ELF file: How to get the shared object belonging to an imported function

shared-libraries,elf,dynamic-linking,objdump,ldd
Given a dynamically linked ELF binary, say for example /bin/less. Inside the binary, there is a call to a function provided by a shared library, for example strcpy() How can I find out from which shared library/shared object the strcp function is obtained? In other words, I want to get...

How to load all symbols from shared library on start up?

c,linux,optimization,shared-libraries,glibc
Good day! I have a fork-on-connect daemon. After profiling it with perf tool, I found out that function "do_lookup_x" consume lot's of CPU time. All the function calls for shared-libraries functions are after fork. Is there any way to lookup all symbols before fork?...

cmake - Is it possible to link executable to shared library with relative path at runtime?

c++,cmake,shared-libraries
Lets say I have this: ../project_dir main.cpp mylib.cpp mylib.h Building steps will be: g++ -c mylib.cpp -o mylib.o g++ -shared -o libmylib.so mylib.o g++ -L$(pwd) -Wl,-rpath='$ORIGIN' -o exec main.cpp -lmylib exec will be my binary executable output. When I testing with: ldd exec the output line is: libmylib.so => /full/path/to/build/directory/libmylib.so...

Linking shared object library without headers with NDK in Android Studio

android-ndk,linker,shared-libraries,rust
I've got a shared library file, faceblaster-engine.so, compiled for arm-linux-androideabi, placed in the jniLibs folder for Android Studio. I've also got a simple cpp file in the jni folder. My library is written in Rust, so I have no header files, and I'd like to call functions inside of it...

Cross compilation: can't resolve symbol 'register_printf_function'

linux,linker,shared-libraries,cross-compiling
I have cross-compiled strongswan-5.2.2, a open source project implementing VPN server&client, for embedded-linux running on mipsel (target) on Ubuntu12.04 running on Intel x86 machine. But executing the cross-compiled strongswan on mipsel machine fails as follows: $ ./charon ./charon: can't resolve symbol 'register_printf_function' It seems like that libc.so is not refereed...

Organize External API Calls in Rails 4 - Module or Class?

ruby-on-rails,ruby,ruby-on-rails-4,shared-libraries,call
I am creating a Rails app that will use quite a few external APIs such as SalesForce, FolderGrid(like Dropbox) etc., which would all sync to my database. I've never worked with external api calls so I created a few basic Ruby scripts with scattered methods to test the call to...

Removing hash extension from cargo dylib naming

shared-libraries,rust,rust-cargo
Cargo.toml [lib] name = "faceblaster-engine" crate_type = ["dylib"] Whenever I execute cargo build my dylib is named: libfaceblaster-engine-f09635dc7c9bd155.so. Is there anyway to add something to the .toml file to remove the hash being placed on the end? Thanks in advance for any help!...

Why so many symbolic links?

c++,opencv,shared-libraries
After installation of Opencv 2.4.9, I found it created many symbolic links in /usr/local/lib. Say, for libopencv_core.so.2.4.9, when I use ls -l, it showed ... libopencv_core.so -> libopencv_core.so.2.4 libopencv_core.so.2.4 -> libopencv_core.so.2.4.9 libopencv_core.so.2.4.9 ... My question is, since it already put the real shared library libopencv_core.so.2.4.9 in /usr/lcoal/lib, why bother to...

Shared library and Android NDK

android,android-ndk,shared-libraries
I recently started to use Android NDK and I’m facing some problems with shared libraries. I created a project with Eclipse that allows me to use NDK and natives functions. But now, I would like to use another shared library that I created with QtCreator. So here is my question....

Unusual VS2010 Link Error LNK1104: cannot open file 'libssh2d.lib'

visual-studio-2010,shared-libraries,libssh2,libssh
I am trying to work with libssh2 libraries in VS2010. I am getting a weird error of LNK1104: cannot open file 'libssh2d.lib'. I have clearly included the libraries in the Project Properties->Linker->General->Additional Library Directories. There are couple of other additional libraries with the one above, and they get included without...

List of library versions in stable releases

unix,shared-libraries
I am developping a free software, and this software is using a shared library from the system. Unfortunately, the original author of the library decided to change the API at one point in time, so now I have to maintain two branches of the software. To make a decision, if...

How to determine in which .SO library is given C function?

c++,c,linux,shared-libraries
I have this problem all the time in Linux programming. As long as all the manuals and almost all the source code for Linux are C-centric, all references to some function needs only some include <something.h> line and the function is accessible from the C/C++ code. But I am programming...

Linking library and undefined reference to function in JNI

java,android,jni,shared-libraries,static-linking
I'm trying to use two different libraries in my JNI code: I've tried to compile them with the following android.mk file: TOP_PATH := $(call my-dir) # Lib native-audio-jni #------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ APP_PLATFORM := android-19 LOCAL_PATH := $(TOP_PATH) include $(CLEAR_VARS) LOCAL_MODULE := native-audio-jni LOCAL_SRC_FILES := native-audio-jni.c \ wavfile.c # for native audio LOCAL_LDLIBS...

Shared Libraries in Project Folder

linux,shared-libraries
I'm currently starting to work with Shared Libraries under Linux (OpenSuse). The Shared Libraries I am writing are used by a bunch of small programs that provide some tools for electrical engineering. Thus the Libraries are very specific. Therefore I would like to keep the programs and the shared libraries...

Why does my .so have undefined symbols

c,dll,linker,shared-libraries,dlopen
Im creating a runtime loaded shared object in linux that impliments some JSON using jannson.h. This is how I'm building the .so: gcc -Wall -fPIC -c device_simulator_json.c gcc -shared -Wl,-soname,device_simulator_json.so.1 -o device_simulator_json.so.1.0 device_simulator_json.o When my application tries to load the .so, I get an error indication: undefined symbol: json_object I'm...