I have yet another R question. I am trying to do some type checking, but cannot exactly figure out what I am doing wrong.

I am trying to create a histogram for each level of y. So for instance, I want to create overlaying histograms of the iris data species and their sepal widths, etc

Here is what I have thus far:

```
#if x isn't numeric
if(!is.numeric(x)){
#if y isn't a factor
}else if(!is.factor(y)){
#if the length of x isn't equal to y
}else if(nChar(x) != nChar(y)){
#error message
stop('x is not numeric/y is not a factor/both x and y are the same length')
}
#otherwise create histogram
#testing with iris data set
hist(y, main = "Iris Species", xlab = "Sepal Width", col = "orange", border ="blue")
```

Answer:

I usually use `stopifnot()`

for this, so that you check the simplest condition first then proceed to the more complex; you don't want to test all of them at once if the first one is invalid:

```
stopifnot(is.numeric(x))
stopifnot(is.factor(y))
stopifnot(length(x) == length(y))
```

Alternatively, doing all of this in one go:

```
if(!(is.numeric(x) && is.factor(y) && length(x)==length(y))){
stop("your error message")
}
```

Now it's not clear to me why you're testing `y`

here at all, as there is no 'y' argument to `hist()`

. Perhaps you were planning to plot separate histograms for `x`

for each level of `y`

?

If so, you should be able to adapt the following:

```
x <- iris$Sepal.Width
y <- iris$Species
l1 <- length(levels(y))
## temporarily change plotting parameters
op <- par(mfrow = c(1, l1))
for (i in 1:l1){
hist(x[y == levels(y)[i]],
main=paste0("Iris Species: ", levels(y)[i]),
xlab = "Sepal Width",
col="orange",
border="blue")
}
par(op)
```

giving:

I am not aware of an `nChar`

function in R; `length()`

is normally used for this.

Here's the overlapping approach. Note that `for`

loops are often easier to read than `apply`

and the loss in speed is likely to be relatively small.

```
for (i in 1:l1){
hist(x[y == levels(y)[i]],
## main=paste0("Iris Species: ", levels(y)[i]),
main="Iris Species: ",
xlab = "Sepal Width",
col=i+1,
add=!(i==1))
}
legend(x=4, y=25, legend=levels(y), fill=1+(1:l1))
```

giving:

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