c,floating-point,double,epsilon , precision of comparing double values with EPSILON in C

## Question:

Tag: c,floating-point,double,epsilon

Doing function that takes 2 arrays (column1 and column2) from struct CSV D and plots the graph from it.

Idea is to find max, min values of each array, then break range between min−EPSILON and max+EPSILON in to 600 equal regions, where EPSILON = 10^(−6)

Problem is that function does not plot the lowest line properly, I think the issue is when comparing the value from array with min-EPSILON, not sure. Please advice.

Here's my code.

``````void
do_plot(CSV *D, int column1, int column2) {
#define Y_REGIONS 600
#define X_REGIONS 600
#define EPSILON 0.000001
int col1=column1-1;                     //since indexing in C language starts from 0, to be more user friendly values increased by 1
int col2=column2-1;
double  min_y = D->values[0][col1]; //min val of column
double  max_y = D->values[0][col1]; //max val of column
double  min_x = D->values[0][col2]; //min val of column
double  max_x = D->values[0][col2]; //max val of column
int     i=0,j=0,k=0;                //iteration variables
double  interval_x, interval_y;     //region
int     counter;                    //counts how many elements of "col1" and "column2" are in bucket
int     plotval;                    //plotted value
double  upper_bound_y[Y_REGIONS+1],lower_bound_y[Y_REGIONS+1];      //arrays for lower and upper bounds of regions in y (added extra 1 not to run out of regions)
double  upper_bound_x[X_REGIONS+1],lower_bound_x[X_REGIONS+1];      //arrays for lower and upper bounds of regions in x
while (i < D->number_of_rows){
if (D->values[i][col1] > max_y){
max_y = D->values[i][col1];
}
if (D->values[i][col1] < min_y){
min_y = D->values[i][col1];
}
if (D->values[i][col2] > max_x){
max_x = D->values[i][col2];
}
if (D->values[i][col2] < min_x){
min_x = D->values[i][col2];
}
i++;
}
/* adding EPSILON val to max and min */
max_x=max_x+EPSILON;
max_y=max_y+EPSILON;
min_x=min_x-EPSILON;
min_y=min_y-EPSILON;
interval_y=(max_y-min_y)/Y_REGIONS; //breaking y axis into Y_REGIONS equal regions
interval_x=(max_x-min_x)/X_REGIONS; //breaking x axis into Y_REGIONS equal regions
/* calculating regions of y*/
upper_bound_y[0]=max_y;             //upper bound of the first region in y
lower_bound_y[0]=max_y-interval_y;  //lower bound of the first region in y
for (j=0; j<Y_REGIONS; j++){
upper_bound_y[j+1]=upper_bound_y[j]-interval_y;
lower_bound_y[j+1]=lower_bound_y[j]-interval_y;
}
/* calculating regions of x */
upper_bound_x[0]=min_x+interval_x;  //upper bound of the first region in y
lower_bound_x[0]=min_x;             //lower bound of the first region in y
for (j=0; j<X_REGIONS; j++){
upper_bound_x[j+1]=upper_bound_x[j]+interval_x;
lower_bound_x[j+1]=lower_bound_x[j]+interval_x;
}
/* plotting the graph */
for (i=0; i<Y_REGIONS; i++){
printf("\n%6.20lf--%6.20lf: ", lower_bound_y[i], upper_bound_y[i]); //plotting y axis
for (j=0; j<X_REGIONS; j++){    //x axis
counter=0;          //resetting counter
while (k <= D->number_of_rows){
k++;
/* checking whether element of input lies within region and counting number of elements */
if (D->values[k][col1] < upper_bound_y[i] && D->values[k][col1] > lower_bound_y[i]){
if (D->values[k][col2] < upper_bound_x[j] && D->values[k][col2] > lower_bound_x[j] ){
counter++;
}
}
}
k=0; //resetting counter
plotval=floor(log(counter+1)/log(2)); //formula to show number of values in bucket
/* plotting x lines */
if (plotval==0){
printf(".");
}
else{
printf("%d",plotval);
}
}
}
printf("\n");
return;
}
``````

Bounds calculations are convoluted and have holes.

See that `upper_bound_x[n] == lower_bound_x[n+1]`. Then when a compare occurs with `(D->values[k][col2] == upper_bound_x[n]`, it will neither fit in in region `n` nor region `n+1`.

``````// Existing code
upper_bound_x[0]=min_x+interval_x;  //upper bound of the first region in y
lower_bound_x[0]=min_x;             //lower bound of the first region in y
for (j=0; j<X_REGIONS; j++){
upper_bound_x[j+1]=upper_bound_x[j]+interval_x;
lower_bound_x[j+1]=lower_bound_x[j]+interval_x;
}
....
if (D->values[k][col2] < upper_bound_x[j] && D->values[k][col2] > lower_bound_x[j] ){
``````

Suggest re-write and use a `bound_x[X_REGIONS+1]` array and then use compare:

``````if (D->values[k][col2] >= bound_x[j] && D->values[k][col2] < bound_x[j] ){
``````

Alternately, code could skip the `bound[]` arrays (x&y) and calculate bounds on the fly.

Minor:

Repeated code: Make helper functions to calculate min and max and then cal once each to calculate for the `x` and the `y`.

Code should post definition of `CSV`. It is confusion to have `x` in one column and `y` in another. Better to have a array of `point` (Make own struct holding an `x` and `y`), rather than an array of `double` pairs.

Be sure to `#include <math.h>`

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