python,csv,pandas,resampling,merging-data , Resampling and merging data frame with python


Resampling and merging data frame with python

Question:

Tag: python,csv,pandas,resampling,merging-data

Hi I have created a dictionary of dataFrame with this code

import os
import pandas 
import glob

path="G:\my_dir\*"
dataList={}

for files in glob.glob(path):
    dataList[files]=(read_csv(files,sep=";",index_col='Date'))

The different dataframe present in the dictory have different time sample. An example of dataFrame(A) is

Date               Volume   Value 
2014-01-04 06:00:02 6062   108000.0
2014-01-04 06:06:05 6062   107200.0
2014-01-04 06:12:07 6062   97400.0
2014-01-04 06:18:10 6062   99200.0
2014-01-04 06:24:12 6062   91300.0
2014-01-04 06:30:14 6062   84100.0
2014-01-04 06:36:17 6062   57000.0

Example of dataFrame(B) is

Date                Volume Value 
2014-01-04 05:52:50  6062   4.7
2014-01-04 05:58:53  6062   4.7
2014-01-04 06:04:56  6062   4.9 
2014-01-04 06:10:58  6062   5.1
2014-01-04 06:17:01  6062   5.2
2014-01-04 06:23:03  6062   5.2
2014-01-04 06:29:05  6062   5.5
2014-01-04 06:35:08  6062   5.5

The different data frame don't have the same number of rows. I want to merge the different data frame in a single one like this:

    Data                 Volume       B               A               Value(DataframeN)
2014/04/01 05:52:50      6062        4.70            NaN
2014/04/01 05:58:53      6062        4.70            NaN
2014/04/01 06:04:56      6062        4.90            107465.51
2014/04/01 06:10:58      6062        5.10            100652.60
2014/04/01 06:17:01      6062        5.20            98899.57
2014/04/01 06:23:03      6062        5.20            92618.56
2014/04/01 06:29:05      6062        5.50            85301.73
2014/04/01 06:35:08      6062        5.50            61523.06

I have done this easily with Matlab using with the command

ts_A=timeseries(ValueA,datenum(DateA));
ts_B=timeseries(ValueB,datenum(DateB));
res_A=resample(ts_A,datenum(DateB));

I have to do this for several sets of csv files so I wanted to automate the process with python.

Tnx


Answer:

You can concat the two DataFrames, interpolate, then reindex on the DataFrame you want.

I assume we have a certain number of DataFrames, where the Date is a DateTimeIndex in all of them. I will use two in this example, since you used two in the question, but the code will work for any number.

df_a:

                     Volume   Value
Date                               
2014-01-04 06:00:02    6062  108000
2014-01-04 06:06:05    6062  107200
2014-01-04 06:12:07    6062   97400
2014-01-04 06:18:10    6062   99200
2014-01-04 06:24:12    6062   91300
2014-01-04 06:30:14    6062   84100
2014-01-04 06:36:17    6062   57000

df_b:

                     Volume  Value
Date                              
2014-01-04 05:52:50    6062    4.7
2014-01-04 05:58:53    6062    4.7
2014-01-04 06:04:56    6062    4.9
2014-01-04 06:10:58    6062    5.1
2014-01-04 06:17:01    6062    5.2
2014-01-04 06:23:03    6062    5.2
2014-01-04 06:29:05    6062    5.5
2014-01-04 06:35:08    6062    5.5

And I will put these into a dict for the example. You read them directly into a dict, so you don't need to do this step. I just want to show how my example dict is formatted. The dict keys don't matter, any valid dict key will work:

dataList = {'a': df_a,
            'b': df_b}

This gets us to where you currently are, with my dataList hopefully having the same format as yours.

The first thing you need to do is to combine the DataFrames. I use the dict keys as MultiIndex column names so you can keep track of which instance of a given column came from which DataFrame. You can do that like so:

df = pd.concat(dataList.values(), axis=1, keys=dataList.keys())

This gives you a DataFrame like this:

                         a              b      
                    Volume   Value Volume Value
Date                                           
2014-01-04 05:52:50    NaN     NaN   6062   4.7
2014-01-04 05:58:53    NaN     NaN   6062   4.7
2014-01-04 06:00:02   6062  108000    NaN   NaN
2014-01-04 06:04:56    NaN     NaN   6062   4.9
2014-01-04 06:06:05   6062  107200    NaN   NaN
2014-01-04 06:10:58    NaN     NaN   6062   5.1
2014-01-04 06:12:07   6062   97400    NaN   NaN
2014-01-04 06:17:01    NaN     NaN   6062   5.2
2014-01-04 06:18:10   6062   99200    NaN   NaN
2014-01-04 06:23:03    NaN     NaN   6062   5.2
2014-01-04 06:24:12   6062   91300    NaN   NaN
2014-01-04 06:29:05    NaN     NaN   6062   5.5
2014-01-04 06:30:14   6062   84100    NaN   NaN
2014-01-04 06:35:08    NaN     NaN   6062   5.5
2014-01-04 06:36:17   6062   57000    NaN   NaN

Next, you need to interpolate to fill in the missing values. I interpolate using 'time' mode so it properly handles the time indexes:

df = df.interpolate('time')

This gives you a DataFrame like this:

                         a                     b          
                    Volume          Value Volume     Value
Date                                                      
2014-01-04 05:52:50    NaN            NaN   6062  4.700000
2014-01-04 05:58:53    NaN            NaN   6062  4.700000
2014-01-04 06:00:02   6062  108000.000000   6062  4.738017
2014-01-04 06:04:56   6062  107352.066116   6062  4.900000
2014-01-04 06:06:05   6062  107200.000000   6062  4.938122
2014-01-04 06:10:58   6062   99267.955801   6062  5.100000
2014-01-04 06:12:07   6062   97400.000000   6062  5.119008
2014-01-04 06:17:01   6062   98857.851240   6062  5.200000
2014-01-04 06:18:10   6062   99200.000000   6062  5.200000
2014-01-04 06:23:03   6062   92805.801105   6062  5.200000
2014-01-04 06:24:12   6062   91300.000000   6062  5.257182
2014-01-04 06:29:05   6062   85472.375691   6062  5.500000
2014-01-04 06:30:14   6062   84100.000000   6062  5.500000
2014-01-04 06:35:08   6062   62151.239669   6062  5.500000
2014-01-04 06:36:17   6062   57000.000000   6062  5.500000

I think generally it would be best to stop here, since you keep all data from all csv files. But you said you want only the time points from the longest csv. To get that, you need to find the longest DataFrame, and then get the rows corresponding to its indexes. Finding the longest DataFrame is easy, you just find the one with the maximum length. Keeping only the time points in that index is also easy, you just slice using that index (you use the loc method for slicing in this way).

longind = max(dataList.values(), key=len).index
df = df.loc[longind]

This gives you the following final DataFrame:

                         a                     b      
                    Volume          Value Volume Value
Date                                                  
2014-01-04 05:52:50    NaN            NaN   6062   4.7
2014-01-04 05:58:53    NaN            NaN   6062   4.7
2014-01-04 06:04:56   6062  107352.066116   6062   4.9
2014-01-04 06:10:58   6062   99267.955801   6062   5.1
2014-01-04 06:17:01   6062   98857.851240   6062   5.2
2014-01-04 06:23:03   6062   92805.801105   6062   5.2
2014-01-04 06:29:05   6062   85472.375691   6062   5.5
2014-01-04 06:35:08   6062   62151.239669   6062   5.5

This can be combined into one line if you want:

df = pd.concat(dataList.values(), axis=1, keys=dataList.keys()).interpolate('time').loc[max(dataList.values(), key=len).index]

Or, perhaps a slightly clearer 4 lines:

names = dataList.keys()
dfs = dataList.values()
longind = max(dfs, key=len).index
df = pd.concat(dfs, axis=1, keys=names).interpolate('time').loc[longind]

I am not sure why my final results are different than what you show. I ran your example in MATLAB (R2015A) myself and got the same results as I get here, so I suspect you generated the final data with a different data set than the example.


Related:


How to use template within Django template?


python,html,django,templates,django-1.4
I have the django template like below: <a href="https://example.com/url{{ mylist.0.id }}" target="_blank"><h1 class="title">{{ mylist.0.title }}</h1></a> <p> {{ mylist.0.text|truncatewords:50 }}<br> ... (the actual template is quite big) It should be used 10 times on the same page, but 'external' html elements are different: <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-12 col-lg-12 block block-color-1"> *django...

Python: can't access newly defined environment variables


python,bash,environment-variables
I can't access my env var: import subprocess, os print os.environ.get('PATH') # Works well print os.environ.get('BONSAI') # doesn't work But the env var is well added in my /home/me/.bashrc: BONSAI=/home/me/Utils/bonsai_v3.2 export BONSAI And I can access this env var from a new terminal....

represent an index inside a list as x,y in python


python,list,numpy,multidimensional-array
I have a list which contains 1000 integers. The 1000 integers represent 20X50 elements of dimensional array which I read from a file into the list. I need to walk through the list with an indicator in order to find close elements to each other. I want that my indicator...

Sum of two variables in RobotFramework


python,automated-tests,robotframework
I have two variables: ${calculatedTotalPrice} = 42,42 ${productPrice1} = 43,15 I executed ${calculatedTotalPrice} Evaluate ${calculatedTotalPrice}+${productPrice1} I got 42,85,15 How can I resolve it?...

How to put an image on another image in python, using ImageTk?


python,user-interface,tkinter
I want to put an image in front of another one, then use this combined image as a button's background image in Tkinter. How can I do it? I am free to import Tkimage, Image. Clarify: I want to stick this on the center of this so that something like...

Twilio Client Python not Working in IOS Browser


javascript,python,ios,flask,twilio
I have created a simple twilio client application to make phone calls from Web Browser to phones. I used a sample Flask app to generate a secure Capability Token and used twilio.min.js library to handle calls from my HTML. The functionality works fine in Computer Browsers ans Android Phone Browsers,...

Django: html without CSS and the right text


python,html,css,django,url
First of all, this website that I'm trying to build is my first, so take it easy. Thanks. Anyway, I have my home page, home.html, that extends from base.html, and joke.html, that also extends base.html. The home page works just fine, but not the joke page. Here are some parts...

SyntaxError: invalid syntax?


python,syntax
Good afternoon, I am developing a script in python and while I am trying to compile it from the terminator/terminal i always get this error, but I cannot understand where is the syntax error? File "_case1.py", line 128 print ('########################') ^ SyntaxError: invalid syntax Then I just change the position...

How do variables inside python modules work?


python,module,python-module
I am coming from a Java background with Static variables, and I am trying to create a list of commonly used strings in my python application. I understand there are no static variables in python so I have written a module as follows: import os APP_NAME = 'Window Logger' APP_DATA_FOLDER_PATH...

Using counter on array for one value while keeping index of other values


python,collections
After reading the answers on this question How to count the frequency of the elements in a list? I was wondering how to count the frequency of something, and at the same time retreive some extra information, through something like an index. For example a = ['fruit','Item#001'] b = ['fruit','Item#002']...

Python: histogram/ binning data from 2 arrays.


python,histogram,large-files
I have two arrays of data: one is a radius values and the other is a corresponding intensity reading at that intensity: e.g. a small section of the data. First column is radius and the second is the intensities. 29.77036614 0.04464427 29.70281027 0.07771409 29.63523525 0.09424901 29.3639355 1.322793 29.29596385 2.321502 29.22783249...

Spring-integration scripting with Python


python,spring-integration,jython
I'm trying to use Python with spring-integration and jython-standalone-2.7.0: Here is my application context: <int:inbound-channel-adapter id="in" channel="exampleChannel" > <int:poller fixed-rate="1000" /> <int-script:script lang="python" location="script/message.py" /> </int:inbound-channel-adapter> <int:channel id="exampleChannel" /> <int-ip:udp-outbound-channel-adapter id="udpOut" channel="exampleChannel" host="192.168.0.1" port="11111" /> Here is my script in Python: print "Python"...

Calling function and passing arguments multiple times


python,function,loops
I want to call the function multiple time and use it's returned argument everytime when it's called. For example: def myfunction(first, second, third): return (first+1,second+1,third+1) 1st call: myfunction(1,2,3) 2nd call is going to be pass returned variables: myfunction(2,3,4) and loop it until defined times. How can I do such loop?...

Peewee: reducing where conditionals break after a certain length


python,peewee
This is what I have: SomeTable.select.where(reduce(operator.or_, (SomeTable.stuff == entry for entry in big_list))) The problem arises when I have a relatively large list of elements in big_list and I get this: RuntimeError: maximum recursion depth exceeded Is there another way to approach this that doesn't involve splitting up the list...

Python - Opening and changing large text files


python,replace,out-of-memory,large-files
I have a ~600MB Roblox type .mesh file, which reads like a text file in any text editor. I have the following code below: mesh = open("file.mesh", "r").read() mesh = mesh.replace("[", "{").replace("]", "}").replace("}{", "},{") mesh = "{"+mesh+"}" f = open("p2t.txt", "w") f.write(mesh) It returns: Traceback (most recent call last): File...

Displaying a 32-bit image with NaN values (ImageJ)


python,image-processing,imagej
I wrote a multilanguage 3-D image denoising ImageJ plugin that does some operations on an image and returns the denoised image as a 1-D array. The 1-D array contains NaN values (around the edges). The 1-D array is converted back into an image stack and displayed. It is simply black....

Count function counting only last line of my list


python,python-2.7
Count function counting only last line of my list N = int(raw_input()) cnt = [] for i in range(N): string = raw_input() for j in range(1,len(string)): if string[j] =='K': cnt.append('R') elif string[j] =='R': cnt.append('R') if string[0] == 'k': cnt.append('k') elif string[0] == 'R': cnt.append('R') print cnt.count('R') if I am giving...

group indices of list in list of lists


python,list
I am looking for an elegant solution for the following problem. I have a list of ints and I want to create a list of lists where the indices with the same value are grouped together in the order of the occurrences of said list. [2, 0, 1, 1, 3,...

Identify that a string could be a datetime object


python,regex,algorithm,python-2.7,datetime
If I knew the format in which a string represents date-time information, then I can easily use datetime.datetime.strptime(s, fmt). However, without knowing the format of the string beforehand, would it be possible to determine whether a given string contains something that could be parsed as a datetime object with the...

Pandas Dataframe Complex Calculation


python,python-2.7,pandas,dataframes
I have the following dataframe,df: Year totalPubs ActualCitations 0 1994 71 191.002034 1 1995 77 2763.911781 2 1996 69 2022.374474 3 1997 78 3393.094951 I want to write code that would do the following: Citations of currentyear / Sum of totalPubs of the two previous years I want something to...

how to enable a entry by clicking a button in Tkinter?


python,tkinter
I need to activate many entries when button is clicked please do not write class based code, modify this code only because i need to change the whole code for the project as i did my whole project without classes from Tkinter import * import ttk x='disabled' def rakhi(): global...

How to change the IP address of Amazon EC2 instance using boto library


python,amazon-web-services,boto
How can I assign a new IP address (or Elastic IP) to an already existing AWS EC2 instance using boto library.

How does the class_weight parameter in scikit-learn work?


python,scikit-learn
I am having a lot of trouble understanding how the class_weight parameter in scikit-learn's Logistic Regression operates. The Situation I want to use logistic regression to do binary classification on a very unbalanced data set. The classes are labelled 0 (negative) and 1 (positive) and the observed data is in...

How to remove structure with python from this case?
python,python-2.7
How to remove "table" from HTML using python? I had case like this: paragraph = ''' <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Quidem molestiae consequuntur officiis corporis sint.<br /><br /> <table> <tr> <td> text title </td> <td> text title 2 </td> </tr> </table> <p> lorem ipsum</p> ''' how...

trying to understand LSH through the sample python code


python,similarity,locality-sensitive-hash
the concise python code i study for is here Question A @ line 8 i do not really understand the syntax meaning for "res = res << 1" for the purpose of "get_signature" Question B @ line 49 (SOLVED BY myself through another Q&A) "xor = r1^r2" does not really...

The event loop is already running


python,python-3.x,pyqt,pyqt4
I have the following 5 files: gui.py # -*- coding: utf-8 -*- from PyQt4 import QtCore, QtGui try: _fromUtf8 = QtCore.QString.fromUtf8 except AttributeError: def _fromUtf8(s): return s try: _encoding = QtGui.QApplication.UnicodeUTF8 def _translate(context, text, disambig): return QtGui.QApplication.translate(context, text, disambig, _encoding) except AttributeError: def _translate(context, text, disambig): return QtGui.QApplication.translate(context, text, disambig)...

Create an external Hive table from an existing external table


csv,hadoop,hive
I have a set of CSV files in a HDFS path and I created an external Hive table, let's say table_A, from these files. Since some of the entries are redundant, I tried creating another Hive table based on table_A, say table_B, which has distinct records. I was able to...

Sort when values are None or empty strings python


python,list,sorting,null
I have a list with dictionaries in which I sort them on different values. I'm doing it with these lines of code: def orderBy(self, col, dir, objlist): if dir == 'asc': sorted_objects = sorted(objlist, key=lambda k: k[col]) else: sorted_objects = sorted(objlist, key=lambda k: k[col], reverse=True) return sorted_objects Now the problem...

Can't get value from xpath python


python,html,xpath,web-scraping,html-parsing
I want to get values from page: http://www.tabele-kalorii.pl/kalorie,Actimel-cytryna-miod-Danone.html I can get all values from first section, but I can't get values from table "Wartości odżywcze" I use this xpath: ''.join(tree2.xpath("//html/body/div[1]/div[3]/article/div[2]/div/div[4]/div[3]/div/div[1]/div[3]/table[1]/tr[3]/td[2]/span/text()")) But I'm not getting anything. With xpath like this: ''.join(tree2.xpath("//html/body/div[1]/div[3]/article/div[2]/div/div[4]/div[3]/div/div[1]/div[3]/table[1]/tr[3]/td[2]//text()")) I'm...

Matplotlib: Plot the result of an SQL query


python,sql,matplotlib,plot
from sqlalchemy import create_engine import _mssql from matplotlib import pyplot as plt engine = create_engine('mssql+pymssql://**:****@127.0.0.1:1433/AffectV_Test') connection = engine.connect() result = connection.execute('SELECT Campaign_id, SUM(Count) AS Total_Count FROM Impressions GROUP BY Campaign_id') for row in result: print row connection.close() The above code generates an array: (54ca686d0189607081dbda85', 4174469) (551c21150189601fb08b6b64', 182) (552391ee0189601fb08b6b73', 237304) (5469f3ec0189606b1b25bcc0',...

odoo v8 - Field(s) `arch` failed against a constraint: Invalid view definition


python,xml,view,odoo,add-on
I want to create a new view with a DB-view. When I try to install my app, DB-view was created then I get error: 2015-06-22 12:59:10,574 11988 ERROR odoo openerp.addons.base.ir.ir_ui_view: Das Feld `datum` existiert nicht Fehler Kontext: Ansicht `overview.tree.view` [view_id: 1532, xml_id: k. A., model: net.time.overview, parent_id: k. A.] 2015-06-22...

Replace nodejs for python?


python,node.js,webserver
i'm working in a HTML5 multiplayer game, and i need a server to sync player's movement, chat, battles, etc. So I'm looking for ways to use python instead nodejs, because i have I have more familiarity with python. The server is simple: var express = require('express'); var app = express();...

Strange Behavior: Floating Point Error after Appending to List


python,python-2.7,behavior
I am writing a simple function to step through a range with floating step size. To keep the output neat, I wrote a function, correct, that corrects the floating point error that is common after an arithmetic operation. That is to say: correct(0.3999999999) outputs 0.4, correct(0.1000000001) outputs 0.1, etc. Here's...

Python np.delete issue


python,numpy
A = np.array([[1,2,3],[3,4,5],[5,6,7]]) X = np.array([[0, 1, 0]]) for i in xrange(np.shape(X)[0]): for j in xrange(np.shape(X)[1]): if X[i,j] == 0.0: A = np.delete(A, (j), axis=0) I am trying to delete j from A if in X there is 0 at index j. I get IndexError: index 2 is out of...

How to check for multiple attributes in a list


python,python-2.7
I am making a TBRPG game using Python 2.7, and i'm currently making a quest system. I wanted to make a function that checks all of the quests in a list, in this case (quests), and tells you if any of of the quests in the list have the same...

Parse text from a .txt file using csv module


python,python-2.7,parsing,csv
I have an email that comes in everyday and the format of the email is always the same except some of the data is different. I wrote a VBA Macro that exports the email to a text file. Now that it is a text file I want to parse the...

In sklearn, does a fitted pipeline reapply every transform?


python,scikit-learn,pipeline,feature-selection
Apologies if this is obvious but I couldn't find a clear answer to this: Say I've used a pretty typical pipeline: feat_sel = RandomizedLogisticRegression() clf = RandomForestClassifier() pl = Pipeline([ ('preprocessing', preprocessing.StandardScaler()), ('feature_selection', feat_sel), ('classification', clf)]) pl.fit(X,y) Now when I apply pl on a new set, pl.predict(X_classify); is RandomizedLogisticRegression going...

Python Popen - wait vs communicate vs CalledProcessError


python,python-2.7,error-handling,popen
Continuing from my previous question I see that to get the error code of a process I spawned via Popen in python I have to call either wait() or communicate() (which can be used to access the Popen stdout and stderr attributes): app7z = '/path/to/7z.exe' command = [app7z, 'a', dstFile.temp,...

Python recursive function not recursing


python,recursion
I'm trying to solve a puzzle, which is to reverse engineer this code, to get a list of possible passwords, and from those there should be one that 'stands out', and should work function checkPass(password) { var total = 0; var charlist = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"; for (var i = 0; i...

Find the tf-idf score of specific words in documents using sklearn


python,scikit-learn,tf-idf
I have code that runs basic TF-IDF vectorizer on a collection of documents, returning a sparse matrix of D X F where D is the number of documents and F is the number of terms. No problem. But how do I find the TF-IDF score of a specific term in...

ctypes error AttributeError symbol not found, OS X 10.7.5


python,c++,ctypes
I have a simple test function on C++: #include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <locale.h> #include <wchar.h> char fun() { printf( "%i", 12 ); return 'y'; } compiling: gcc -o test.so -shared -fPIC test.cpp and using it in python with ctypes: from ctypes import cdll from ctypes import c_char_p...

How do I read this list and parse it?


python,list
I'm using requests and the output I get from the sites API is a list, I've been stuck trying to parse it to get the data from it. I use r = requests.get(urlas, params=params) r.json() to get the data I want. Here is a snippet of the list [{'relation_type': None,...

SQLAlchemy. 2 different relationships for 1 column


python,sqlalchemy
I have a simple many-to-many relationship with associated table: with following data: matches: users: users_mathces: ONE user can play MANY matches and ONE match can involve up to TWO users I want to realize proper relationships in both "Match" and "User" classes users_matches_table = Table('users_matches', Base.metadata, Column('match_id', Integer, ForeignKey('matches.id', onupdate="CASCADE",...

How to pivot array into another array in Ruby


arrays,ruby,csv
I have a multidimensional array like this one : myArray = [["Alaska","Rain","3"],["Alaska","Snow","4"],["Alabama","Snow","2"],["Alabama","Hail","1"]] I would like to end up with CSV output like this. State,Snow,Rain,Hail Alaska,4,3,nil Alabama,2,nil,1 I know that to get this outputted to CSV the way I want it I have to have output array like this: outputArray =[["State","Snow","Rain","Hail"],["Alaska",4,3,nil],["Alabama",2,nil,1]]...

Pandas - Dropping multiple empty columns


python,pandas
I have some tables where the first 11 columns are populated with data, but all columns after this are blank. I tried: df=df.dropna(axis=1,how='all') which didn't work. I then used: df = df.drop(df.columns[range(11,36)], axis=1) Which worked on the first few tables, but then some of the tables were longer or shorter...

sys.argv in a windows environment


python,windows,python-3.x
I'm attempting to learn python using the book 'a byte of python'. The code: import sys print('the command line arguments are:') for i in sys.argv: print(i) print('\n\nThe PYTHONPATH is', sys.path, '\n') outputs: the command line arguments are: C:/Users/user/PycharmProjects/helloWorld/module_using_sys.py The PYTHONPATH is ['C:\\Users\\user\\PycharmProjects\\helloWorld', 'C:\\Users\\user\\PycharmProjects\\helloWorld', 'C:\\Python34\\python34.zip', 'C:\\Python34\\DLLs', 'C:\\Python34\\lib', 'C:\\Python34', 'C:\\Python34\\lib\\site-packages']...

Create an exe with Python 3.4 using cx_Freeze


python,python-3.4,cx-freeze
I have found two other articles about this problem on Stack Exchange but none of them has a clear answer: is it possible to create a .exe of a Python 3.4 script? The only solution I found was to use cx_Freeze. I used it, and it indeed created an executable...

Inserting a variable in MongoDB specifying _id field


python,mongodb,pymongo
I want to insert a variable, say, a = {1:2,3:4} into my database with a particular id "56". It is very clear from the docs that I can do the following: db.testcol.insert({"_id": "56", 1:2, 3:4}) However, I cannot figure out any way to insert "a" itself, specifying an id. In...

Inconsistency between gaussian_kde and density integral sum


python,numpy,kernel-density
Can one explain why after estimation of kernel density d = gaussian_kde(g[:,1]) And calculation of integral sum of it: x = np.linspace(0, g[:,1].max(), 1500) integral = np.trapz(d(x), x) I got resulting integral sum completely different to 1: print integral Out: 0.55618 ...